भूगोल / Geography

Contribution of banaras school in Geography | Contribution of R.L. singh, Kashi nath singh, rana p.b singh

Contribution of banaras school in Geography | Contribution of R.L. singh, Kashi nath singh, rana p.b singh


In India the genetic approach has been initiated by Prof. R.L. Singh , known as the founder of Banaras School of Settlement Geography.

    He developed his fundamental concept to “analyse the sequence of change in the cultural landscape” during the initial stage of the Middle Ganga Valley.


—The study of rural settlement has its roots in German History.

—The geographical study of rural settlements has been started by French Geographer Albert Demangeon (1872 -1940).

—Raised the issue of establishing a separate Commission for Rural Settlement Geography in the International Geographical Union general meeting in 1932.

—He had developed the concept of spatial organisation in context to the morphological structure.

—Morphology Denotes the summation of the site, function, size & origin of settlement.

—In Indian Geography first time in 1955 Prof. R.L.Singh wrote a lengthy paper, “EVOLUTION OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE GANGA VALLEY”, which emphasised the historical approach in the context of forms, function, interrelationships, centre-periphery land uses, rural- urban linkages called RURBAN or PRE-URBAN.

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Contribution of R.L. singh

—He has contributed a lot to this field through tour, organising seminar and symposia, editing books and writing research papers.

—His field of specializations were human geography, settlement geography & applied geography all based towards rural development.

—He was associated and served the cause of rural settlements through various administrative capacities e.g Banaras Hindu University (1955-1977) , Honorary Secretary, National Geographical Society of India 1945.

—He  visited 34 countries of the world.

Organised Seminars and Conferences

  • International Symposium on Rural Settlements in South Asia, B.H.U; January 1971.
  • International Group meeting of Geographers Working on Rural Settlements in Monsoon Lands, Newzealand 1974.

Doctoral works on rural settlements guided

  • K.N. Singh – Rural Markets and Rurban Centres in Eastern U.P 1963.
  • R.Y. Singh –Malwa Plateau: A study in Rural Settlement Geography 1974.

Details of contribution

He examined the territorial basis of medieval town and village settlements in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In his paper on shape analysis of rural settlements   R.L.Singh  adopted traditional view of shape of rural settlement as well as geometrical form of shapes.

Saran Plain has been taken as a sample study.

R.L. Singh discussed the spatial diffusion of Rajput clan in four phases corresponding to four phase sequence of the models of spatial diffusion origin.

 Contribution of Kashi nath singh

—Prof K.N. Singh joined the Department of Geography, BHU as Lecturer.

—He published 6 textbooks, 11 co-edited volumes, and over 70 research articles.

—Specialised in the studies of rural settlements, historical geography planning, economic, social geography.

—He was one of the two India –based geographers to have published in the Annals, Association of American Geographers entitled “Territorial basis of Town& village settlement in Eastern U.P India”.

—Prof. K.N. Singh’s contribution as Varanasi school in rural settlement and urban morphology.

—In another of his book kin, clan, raja, and rule writes :

“Recent work by K.N. Singh, M.C. Pradhan etc has indicated the imp role played by unilineal kin groups of locally dominant kshatriya “Caste” in the lower level political organisation of traditional North India”.

Contribution of rana p.b singh

   He is the founding President of the society of the Society of Pilgrimage studies, and of the society of Heritage Planning and Environmental Health.

   He has been involved in studying, performing and promoting the heritage planning and spiritual tourism in the Varanasi region.

   He has introduce “ Pilgrimage- Tourim” as an art of bringing peace to the soul and experiencing spirit of place.

—His publication include over 176 research papers and 32 books on different themes, and two regional guidebooks for cultural tourism, like

—   Banaras Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Tradition(1993).

— Banaras Region: A spiritual & cultural Guide       (2002,   P.B. Rana).

—Towards Pilgrimage archetypes : Panchakroshi Yatra of kashi.(2002)

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महत्वपूर्ण लिंक

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About the author

Kumud Singh

M.A., B.Ed.

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