भूगोल / Geography

Sources of Groundwater- Connate water, Meteoric water, Juvenile water, Condensational water

Sources of Groundwater– Connate water, Meteoric water, Juvenile water, Condensational water

There are four sources of groundwater:

(i) Connate water:

It is the water which includes in the rock itself, at the time of rock formation when water gets trapped in rock strata. Because rock containing connate water is typically formed from ocean sediments, it is normal saline. In geology and sedimentology, connate waters are liquid molecules which got trapped in the pores of sedimentary rocks at their time of deposition. These waters also contain many mineral components in the form of ions in solution. The connate liquids are expelled as rocks get buried and undergo lithification. If the escape route for these fluids blocks, the pore fluid pressure builds up in the rocks leading to overpressure.

(ii) Meteoric water:

It is the water which is derived from precipitation i.e. snow and rain. It includes water in lakes, rivers, and ice melts, which has fallen from precipitation indirectly. It originates in the atmosphere by evaporation which falls as rain and ultimately becomes groundwater by the process of infiltration. This infiltrating water continues its downward journey to the zone of saturation to become a part of the groundwater in aquifers, thus forming the major part of underground water.

(iii) Juvenile water:

It is also known as magmatic water as it originates in the earth’s interior and associates with the magmatic activities below the crust. Magmatic water rises from great depth accompanying magma intrusion. With the cooling of magma, its contents, gaseous and vapor etc. separate out from it. The water vapors gets condensed into heated water and gradually moves upward from the area of high temperature and pressure to that of low temperature and pressure. This is also called virgin water.

(iv) Condensational water:

It is the prime source which replenishes groundwater in deserts and semi-desert areas where precipitation is scanty, and there is rapid evaporation. During summers, the air over land is warmer than the air trapped in the soil, which lead to pressure difference between the two. Because of the pressure gradient, the atmospheric water vapor penetrates the rocks and gets converted into water through condensation due to falling temperature of the water vapor below. This process may lead to the accumulation of a certain amount of water in rocks in arid and desert regions.

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Kumud Singh

M.A., B.Ed.

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