MEANING AND DEFINITIONS OF CUMULATIVE RECORD
A Cumulative Record Card is that which contains the results of different assessment and judgments held from time to time during the course of study of a student or pupil. Generally it covers three consecutive years. It contains information regarding all aspects of life of the child or educed-physical, mental, social, moral and psychological. It seeks to give as comprehensive picture as possible of the personality of a child.
Basically a Cumulative Record Card is a document in which it is recorded cumulatively useful and reliable information about a particular pupil or student at one place. Hence presenting a complete and growing picture of the individual concerned for the purpose of helping him during his long stay at school. And at the time of leaving it helps in the solution of his manifold problems of educational, vocational and personal-social nature and thus assisting him in his best development.
It is a record of information related to the assessment of an individual learner. From time to time
Information received from diverse sources, techniques, tests, interviews, observations, case studies
The cumulative record is collected on the card as a summary, so its Can be used when the learner has to solve an academic or professional problem requires consultation.
To record cumulative; use of mandatory information for instructing the learners;
A method of doing and recording; defined as a cumulative record. The card supplies information at the following points:
A) Personal: (i) Name, (ii) Date of Birth, (iii) Place of Birth (iv) Gender, (v) Color, and (vi) Residence.
B) Home: (i) Guardian’s name, (ii) Guardian’s occupation, (ii) Guardian (alive or dead),(iv) Economic status, (v) Number of siblings, big or small, and (vi) spoken at homeLanguage.
C) Test scores: (i) general intelligence, (ii) achievement, (ii) other test scores, and (iv) personalitya quality.
D) School attendance: (i) attendance, absence days each year, and (ii) days attended by the school along with the date.
E) Health: (i) Record of physical disabilities, Vaccine (Vaccine) record, Record of diseases.
F) Miscellaneous: (i) vocational planning, (ii) extra-curricular activities, (iii) employment during study, and (iv) counselor’s remarks.
If we analyze the contents recorded in the cumulative record card, we find that only such materials are included in the case study or are recorded. Record cards of data collected through unauthorized techniques such as checklists, questionnaires, autobiographies do not find place in the file. It must be remembered that recording of information is not as important as the use of information.
There are certain definitions which are given below to make clear the meaning of cumulative record card:
- According to Bonney and Hampleman:
“Cumulative records consist of all data about an individual pupil which a school considers important enough to collect and record, usually in some organized way, for safe keeping from year to year.”
- According to Arthur Jones:
Cumulative record is defined as “a permanent record of a student which is kept up-to-date by school, it is his educational history with information about his school achievement, attendance, health, test scores and similar pertinent data.”
- According to Ben Morris:
“A record card is only a tool and unless a system of records can impress the majority of teachers as a sensible and useful device which it is within their powers of use, it is likely to be waste of public time and money to install it.”
4. According to Allen: “The cumulative record is defined as the record of information related to the evaluation of the individual pupil, which is usually placed on a card placed in one place.”
5. According to Myor Thomas: “This is information about the disciple collected over a long period of time.”
IMPORTANCE/ NEED AND PURPOSE OF CUMULATIVE RECORD
The modern type of Cumulative Record was first made available in 1928 by the American Council on education. The Secondary Education Commission has made the following observations regarding the need for School records “neither the external examination singly or together can give a correct and complete picture of a pupils all round progress at any particular age of his education, yet it is imparted for us to assess this in order to determine his future course of study or his future vocation.”
For this purpose, a proper system of school records should be maintained for every pupil indicating the work done by him in the school from day to day, month to month, term-to-term and year to year. Such a school record will present a clear and continuous statement of the attainment of the child in different intellectual pursuits through-out the successive stages of his education. It will also contain a progressive evolution of development in other directions of no less importance such as the growth of his interest, aptitudes and personal traits, his social adjustments, the practical and social activities in which he takes part.
IMPORTANCE OF CUMULATIVE RECORD
Provide useful information about learners to cumulative archivists, consultants and administrators. The need and importance of cumulative records in the direction is explained below:
IMPORTANCE IN DIRECTION:
i) The basic principles and prior assumptions of direction are focused on taking into account individual differences. Each person differs from others in certain psychological traits, qualities or characteristics. For example, no two people are the same. They differ from each other in attitudes, aptitudes, and abilities. The cumulative records reveal such individual variations and show the amount and nature of professional support required for the development of learners at various levels.
ii) The cumulative record is a permanent history of the educational development of the individual learner. It shows their presence, health, achievement and other diverse aspects of school life. Since it is useful in analyzing the future needs of a particular learner, appropriate academic and professional instruction can be given based on their needs. For example, if it shows weakness in the physical development of the learner then steps can be suggested to overcome those deficiencies.
IMPORTANCE IN TEACHING:
i) A learner’s personal cumulative record shows it if his achievements are in proportion to his mental abilities. If the achievements of the learner are less then he can be instructed what steps should be taken to remedy his deficiency.
ii) The cumulative record of various learners helps the teacher in classifying the learners according to their academic interests and mental abilities.
iii) The cumulative record of different learners in a class helps the new teacher to understand the needs of the learners.
iv) They are remedial tools to analyze a behavior problem or an educational problem. For example- Why is a learner behind in academic performance? What steps can be taken to overcome his backwardness?
v) Cumulative records tell the teacher about the learner, which learner needs personal attention.
vi) The cumulative record helps teachers to write personal reports of learners and helps the Principal to write character certificates more objectively.
vii) Teachers can mark children with special needs and adjust the teaching accordingly.
vii) Cumulative records are very useful for teachers in preparing case studies. Because stored materials have a lot of similarity.
IMPORTANCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS:
The cumulative records provide sufficient information to the probation officer and the child courts to understand the criminal behavior of a learner. Teachers and counselors are required to keep cumulative records for the reasons that a physician keeps cumulative records. Records kept for a long period tell the story of growth and distortion of the customer.
OBJECTIVES OF CUMULATIVE RECORD:
Cumulative records have some important objectives of their own which are as follows:
i) Helping students to know individual differences, interest, aptitude, aptitude.
ii) To get information about the level and ability of the students.
iii) Helping students to know progress / downgrade.
iv) To assess the behavior of students in different situations.
v) To provide parents with accurate information about their child.
vi) Helping the teachers regarding the achievement level so that they can also scour themselves.
vii) Helping students in providing proper counseling and guidance.
viii) To guide in employment selection.
USES, ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES OF CUMULATIVE RECORD
The uses of cumulative record card are as follows:
i) The Cumulative record is useful for guidance worker and counsellor as it provides a comprehensive, objective picture about the student including his strength and weaknesses.
ii) The Cumulative record is useful for guidance counsellor to help pupil in educational achievement, vocational choice and personal progress so far adjustment is concerned.
iii) The Cumulative record is useful for headmaster/principal to ascertain the pupil’s performances in different subjects and his limitations.
Iv) The Cumulative record is useful for parents to provide special privileges to make up the deficiencies what lie in case of his child.
v) The Cumulative record is useful for teachers to know the students and his progress and weaknesses at a glance.
vi) The Cumulative record does not give chance for overlapping of data collected by different teachers about the students.
The Cumulative record is useful in making case study about the students.
The uses of cumulative record cards are as follows:
(i) The cumulative record is useful to the guidance worker and counselor as it provides the student with a comprehensive, objective picture including their strengths and weaknesses.
(ii) The cumulative records guidance is useful for the counselor to help the pupil in educational achievement, professional choices and personal progress.
(iii) The cumulative record is useful for the Headmaster / Principal to ascertain the performance of the students in various subjects and their limitations.
(iv) The cumulative record is useful for the parents to grant special privileges to all the deficiencies in the case of their child.
(v) Cumulative records are useful for teachers to know the students and its progress and weaknesses at a glance.
The disadvantages of cumulative record card are as follows:
i) The entire data is of little use if they are not collected properly objectively and accurately.
ii) The purpose of Cumulative record is not served if it is not maintained secretly and confidentially.
iii) Sometimes the information’s and its interpretations of Cumulative record becomes confusing as the information’s are collected by different teachers.
iv) The Cumulative record needs much money to come to light which is not possible in the part of school to spend on this head.
v) The maintenance of Cumulative record is a hard some job like clerical work in the part of teachers.
vi) It is a lengthy process which needs much time to be worked out.
(vi) The cumulative record does not provide an opportunity to overlap the data collected by various teachers about the students.
(vii) The cumulative record is useful in conducting a case study about students.
(viii) The cumulative record is useful for students for business purposes.
(ix) The cumulative record is also very useful for self-observation.
The Cumulative record serve as a well arranged store house of all information regarding the students. It is based on factual information, and also need to mention secrecy of information. There should be the importance of usefulness of cumulative records so it may be used properly, its content should be proper and systematic.
Therefore we can say that we can examine the complete picture of pupils all round progress at any particular age of his education through his cumulative record card.
Hence the term cumulative record is used for all types of records that have a system of collecting useful and reliable information about a student for many years so that his or her academic, professional, and personal social needs remain in school and leave school. To help in solving problems of nature.
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